The adequate fact is, we are dependent on Nature and we should respect the nature. We know that trees inhale CO2 and breathe out Oxygen which helps in maintaining the environmental balance. But at present trees are cut down for reasons like conversion of land into agricultural plantation, logging, overpopulation and infrastructure expansion. As the population increases simultaneously the needs of accommodation and food increase in proportion. Cutting of forest took place for building roads and infrastructures. Demand of products like palm-oil and soybeans propels into need of agricultural plantation and reduce jungles. Logging is a dangerous field where workers have to face drastic environmental conditions and are far away from medical help. Timber theft is a part of illegal logging. Forest fire is old major cause of deforestation. Worldwide Millions of hectares burned due to forest fires each year. Increasing demand of fuel-wood, minerals are other reasons of deforestation.
No-doubt all the attributes mentioned above are genuinely required and are essential to modern world but the fact of how desperately we are in a need of forest areas has arose from inside our minds.
Archaeological record says that, Easter Island is no longer remain as it was seems in its time of settlement. The Island is no longer containing the species of trees, it previously has. According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, around 7.3 million hectares of forest lost each year.
Effects of Deforestation:
Habitat: Deforestation can have a negative impact on the environment. The most dramatic impact is a loss of habitat for millions of species. 70% of Earth’s land animals and plants live in forests, and many cannot survive the deforestation that destroys their homes. Not only do we lose those known to us, but also those unknown, potentially an even greater loss. Because of Deforestation, around 15% of global carbon emission happens and when this carbon mixed with greenhouse gases it leads to Global warming.
Extinction and Bio-diversity: Extinction and Bio-Diversity loss is also one of the effects of deforestation. Cutting of trees results into species extinction and loss of genetic diversity. Because of Deforestation we have lost many species of plants which are useful in curing disease. A javan tiger is an example of extinct species that likely become extinct in mid 1970’s. Birdlife international evaluate that 12 percent of bird species are threatened where 2% of them are at high risk because of habitat loss.
Climate imbalance: Climate imbalance is the other reason of deforestation which affects the environment in different ways. Tree provides some shade that keeps the soil moist, but now because of cutting trees over wide range leads to imbalance in the atmospheric temperature and soil erosion.
Flood- Trees generally absorb water from the soil through their roots at the time of rainy season, but because of clearance of trees water get disturbed and result in floods. Dust bowls are also consider as the result of deforestation.
Solutions to deforestation:
Ending deforestation is our best chance to conserve wildlife and defend the rights of forest communities.It’s not very easy to cut the deforestation totally but we can take small steps to reduce it.
Laws and Regulations:
Cutting of trees must be banned: All the Government should create laws for banning the cutting of trees and these laws must be followed strictly.
Plant younger trees to the replacement for cut-down trees.
Transferring rights of public domain land over native people is an effective way of conserving forests. In Brazil, they have lower rates of deforestation in the land, whose rights are given to indigenous people.
New methods have been developed for farming such as Green-house, Autonomous building, hydroponics. Which is a vital way to reduce deforestation.
In Bolivia, honey revenue per hectare of forest is US$5 per year, so within five years, the landholder has sold up to $50 of honey, This project is being conducted by Fundación Natura Bolivia and Rare Conservation, in association with the Climate & Development Knowledge Network. A project is held in Bolivia to remedy the situation of deforestation, in which upstream landholders are paid by downstream water users for conservation of water.
In 16th century, landowners of Germany developed a practice to control the growth, health and quality of forest, this practice is known as sivilculture. In Africa’s one of the country named as Senegal, an event is held by youth where they planted 6 million mangrove trees and Senegalese government has establish rules for protecting this trees.
A step forward towards reducing deforestation by everyone of us will show the positive results in coming years…